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Control of Mixed Soils For soils containing 10 to 20% fines, it is difficult to determine whether rapid method or relative density will control. Our specifications state that in these mixed soils, both tests should be run to determine which one will require the highest fill density. This issue is usually resolved at the start of construction. In-place Density Testing For silty and clayey soils, it is standard Reclamation procedure to use an 8-inch diameter sand cone. The depth of the hole is generally 10-12 inches.
Impact testing was also quite variable and was susceptible to errors in uniform soils. It is unfortunate that the 1970's ASTM study was performed prior to development of reliable table calibration methods. Most of the errors reported could be attributed to variation of table performance. Many of the tables used in those studies may have been found not to supply sufficient/consistent compactive effort. Reclamation performs the test with the vibrating table in accordance with ASTM procedures. A calibration method using linear variable transducers and oscilloscope is used on a surcharged table .
Roller curves are statistical accumulations of in-place moisture and density data from construction of a single dam. The roller curve for the total material is from all of the in-place density data. The fill density of the control fraction is computed from measurements on the gravel to be discussed later. For the Trenton Dam with no gravel, the D ratio for the control fraction exceeds the laboratory value. For Anderson Ranch with an average of 11% oversize the fill values are still higher than the laboratory.