By Christian Puff
Biosystematic experiences at the Rubiaceae have a protracted culture on the Institute of Botany in Vienna. inside this kin the Anthospermeae, and particularly its African and Madagascan participants, are of specific curiosity as a result of a number of elements of their evolution: I) Perfection of anemophily inside of an differently approximately completely zoophilous kin; 2) transitions from hermaphrodity to polygamy and at last dioecy; three) differentiation from huge and long-lived shrubs to short-lived herbs; four) adaptive radiation from humid to seasonally dry, fire-exposed and xeric habitats. even though, morphological variety associated with sexual differentia tion, modificatory plasticity, and eco-geographical polymorphism have for a very long time hampered our realizing of the relationships between those African Anthospermeae. therefore, it used to be vital to place distinctive emphasis on box observations and to hold out quite a few experiments with cultivated vegetation as well as the research of a major herbarium fabric. the writer, accordingly, conducted broad box paintings, usually below very hostile stipulations, and coated so much African nations from Ethiopia to Southern Africa and two times visited Madagascar. during this means a mess of knowledge was once collected at the staff in admire to germination and development shape, vegetative and reproductive morphology, anatomy and biology, embryology, karyology, crossing relationships, phytochemistry, distribu tion and ecology, etc.
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Additional resources for A Biosystematic Study of the African and Madagascan Rubiaceae-Anthospermeae
14 h-j); they may fork, and the ascending branches enter, as small lateral bundles accompanying the larger median one, the petiole and/or the leaf blade base (Figs. 14 i-j). Large stipular "teeth" or fimbriae are normally vascularized by bundles branching out from the ring-like 4. Leaves 37 sheath bundle, while small stipular teeth or smaller, stalked colleters which occasionally also occur on the inside of the stipular sheaths are not supplied by vascular bundles (compare Figs. 14 h-j). 4. 1. Arrangement; Leafy Short Shoots In Ga/opina, Carpacoce and in the majority of Anthospermum and Nenax species, the leaves are arranged decussately.
I'~ Fig. 19. SEMgraphs of stomata of Nenax, Galopina, and Carpacoce. a N cinerea . ) of cultivated plant. b N. acerosa subsp. acerosa (PUFF 800920-3/ 1). c G. circaeoides (PUFF 781029-3/ 1). d C. spermacocea subsp. spermacocea (PUFF 781228-3/ 1). e C. / C. burchellii (ESTERHUYSEN 20092). g-h C. scabra subsp. scabra, g PUFF 800914-6/1, h ESTERHUYSEN 10961 . - b-d, g critical point dried, all others herbarium material. All x 700 4. Leaves 49 Fig. 20. Leaf sections and upper epidermis of Anthospermum.
Spermacocea subsp. spermacocea (PUFF 781228-3/ 1). e C. / C. burchellii (ESTERHUYSEN 20092). g-h C. scabra subsp. scabra, g PUFF 800914-6/1, h ESTERHUYSEN 10961 . - b-d, g critical point dried, all others herbarium material. All x 700 4. Leaves 49 Fig. 20. Leaf sections and upper epidermis of Anthospermum. ibityense (PUFF 800730-1/2). b A. bicorne (PUFF 8009\3-4/2). c A. dregei subsp. dregei (PUFF 780810-211) . d A. pachyrrhizum (PUFF 810930-211). eA . J- g A. esterhuysenianum (PUFF 800924-3/ 2), upper epidermis,fin the midrib region, g between midrib region and margin.