A Geologic Time Scale 2004 by Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith

By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith

A successor to A Geologic Time Scale 1989 (Cambridge, 1990), this quantity introduces the idea and technique in the back of the development of the recent time scale, earlier than providing the size itself in large element. a world staff of over 40 stratigraphic specialists develops the main up to date foreign stratigraphic framework for the Precambrian and Phanerozoic eras. a wide wallchart (not on hand for publication) summarizing the time scale behind the booklet completes this beneficial reference for researchers and scholars.

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4). Compared with the initial 1913 scale, the projected durations of the Jurassic and Permian are more or less doubled, the Triassic and Carboniferous are extended about 50%, and the Cambrian gains 20 myr at the expense of the Ordovician. 2 Phanerozoic radiometric databases, statistical scales, and compilations W. B. Harland and E. H. Francis as part of a Phanerozoic time scale symposium coordinated a systematic, numbered radiometric database with critical evaluations. , 1964) were listed in the order as received by the editors.

As an example, Herbert et al. 2 myr. The Cenomanian and Albian cycle-scaling results have been verified by additional studies in Italy by Fiet et al. (2001) and Grippo et al. g. SEPM95). The main differences seem to be in the choice of the “pin” age for hanging the cycle series from the base-Turonian or baseCenomanian, the selected marker for the yet-to-be-defined stage and substage boundaries within the Albian and Aptian, and which orbital frequency is for tuning. This cycle scaling of the Albian events, but incorporating a potential nannofossil marker for the Albian–Aptian boundary, is used in GTS2004 (see Chapter 19).

KG85 and SEPM95 also took into account some intra-Jurassic age control points to constrain the proportional scaling of the component stages. A smoothing spline fit was applied by F. P. Agterberg in SEPM95 that incorporates the error limits of the isotope age dates. At the individual subzone or zonal level, this equal-duration assumption is known to be incorrect. For example, McArthur et al. (2000) observed a dramatic variability in Pliensbachian and Toarcian ammonite zones when scaled to a linear trend in the 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio of the oceans (see Chapter 18).

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