By Helen M. Kingston
This ABC is a concise, hugely illustrated creation to genetic mechanisms fascinated with inherited issues. the hot version has been widely up to date with new and revised chapters to surround quick advances within the box. simple genetic options are defined besides the appliance of latest applied sciences in scientific perform. details on proper websites also are incorporated in addition to prompt texts for extra examining.
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Additional resources for ABC of Clinical Genetics, 3rd Edition
Many X linked recessive disorders are severe or lethal during early life, however, so that the affected males do not reproduce. Affected females Occasionally a heterozygous female will show some features of the condition and is referred to as a manifesting carrier. This is usually due to non-random X inactivation leading to the chromosome that carries the mutant allele remaining active in most cells. The process of X inactivation that occurs in early embryogenesis is normally random, so that most female carriers would have around 50% of the normal gene remaining active, which is sufficient to prevent clinical signs.
All offspring of a carrier mother may carry the mutation, all offspring of a carrier father will be normal. The pedigree pattern in mitochondrial inheritance may be difficult to recognise, however, because some carrier individuals remain asymptomatic. In Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, which causes sudden and irreversible blindness, for example, half the sons of a carrier mother are affected, but only 1 in 5 of the daughters become symptomatic. Nevertheless, all daughters transmit the mutation to their offspring.
This mechanism results in uniparental isodisomy. Theoretically, UPD could also arise by fertilisation of a momosomic gamete with a disomic gamete, resulting in either isodisomy or heterodisomy. Uniparental disomy may have no clinical consequence by itself. It is occasionally detected by the unmasking of a recessive disorder for which only one parent is a carrier when there is isodisomy for the parental chromosome carrying such a mutation. In this rare situation the child would be affected by a recessive disorder for which the other parent is not a carrier.