By Issa G. Shivji
The "Washington consensus" which ushered in neo-liberal rules in Africa is over. It used to be buried on the G20 assembly in London in early April, 2009. the realm capitalist approach is in shambles. The champions of capitalism within the international North are rewriting the principles of the sport to reserve it. The drawback creates a gap for the worldwide South, particularly Africa, to refuse to play the capitalist-imperialist video game, regardless of the ideas. it's time to reconsider and revisit the advance path and techniques at the continent. this is often the critical message of this intensely argued publication. Issa Shivji demonstrates the necessity to return to the fundamentals of radical political economic system and ask primary questions: who produces the society's surplus product, who appropriates and accumulates it and the way is that this performed. what's the personality of accumulation and what's the social company of switch? The publication presents another theoretical framework to aid African researchers and intellectuals to appreciate their societies higher and give a contribution in the direction of altering them within the curiosity of the operating humans.
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Extra info for Accumulation in an African periphery: a theoretical framework
Superimposed on this process is the process o f commodification and recommodification peculiar to neo-liberalism. (>(>), Lhe creation of artificial and unnatural commodities knows no bounds under neo-liberalism. 'lhe environment, ecology, other 40 creations o f nature (flora and fauna) hbio-resources (pEant plasma and human cm biyosj, are all turned into commodities, os are emotional relations and pleasures. Even the bane that pollution is for cbс people of the earth is turned into a boon for capital as typified by carbon trading [Deyflapment Dictiifgtu 2 0 0 6 ).
3} Export o f capital, as opposed to the export ot commodities, takes on greater importance. 4) International monopolies combine and divide up the world amongst themselves. 30 5} 3he territorial division o f the world by great capitalist p p w e rs [s completed. While there fiavt been many writingssirtec and LnodjfiCLinjojis o f Lenin's thcor>r. " In fact, in many ways the features he described have inrensi bed since bis days. Both export o f capital in search o f higher profits and export o f commodities (markets) lor realisation ol profits continues.
Liг the nine- biggest corporations in Japan - overvalued though rhey are - in clu d in g N ippon Telegraph fli Telephone, ]араль кс^ел largest kin ks. and lo y o ta M otors__ 1l go^K for options trading, stock speculation, and irade in iiireresT pates. ; sim ultaneously by using electro 32 (Q uoTtd in K o rccn 19^6:1 £9)- Su Ь-com mandant Marcos of the Zap at ista movement observed ihat after the marvel o f rbe neutron bomb, which only destroyed life wbile leaving buildings intact, capitalist imperialism had created another marvel, tbe financial bomb (Quoted in Shivji 2 0 0 2 ).