Advanced physical chemistry experiments by J.N. Gurtu, Amit Gurtu.

By J.N. Gurtu, Amit Gurtu.

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EXPERIMENT No. 2 Object : To measure the output voltage of the audio signal generator with the help of CRO. Theory : Both the CRO and the signal generator are important test instruments. The signal generator contains an oscillator and produces sine wave 28 ADVANCED PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENTS voltage of adjustable frequency and magnitude. This voltage can be used for testing the performance of electronic circuits. The main purpose of CRO is to display wave shape. The heart of CRO is its cathode ray tube (CRT).

ERROR ANALYSIS AND STATISTICAL DATA ANALYSIS 13 conditions as are used in the actual analysis of the sample. The object is to find out the effect of the impurities introduced through the reagents and vessels, or to determine the excess of standard solution necessary to find the end-point under the conditions met within the titration of the unknown sample. A large blank correction is undesirable, because the exact value then becomes uncertain and the precision of the analysis is reduced. (3) Running a control determination : This consists in carrying out a determination under as nearly as possible identical experimental conditions upon a quantity of a standard substance which contains the same weight of the constituent as is contained in the unknown sample.

A CRO is basically a very fast X-Y plotter. It displays an input signal versus another signal or versus time. The 'stylus' of this plotter is a luminous spot which moves over the display area in response to input voltages. The heart of the oscilloscope is the cathode ray tube (CRT). The rest of the instrument consists of circuitry necessary to operate the CRT. Now we shall discuss the construction and working of CRT. Electron gun ---"' ~----............... ontal deflection plates Fig. 3 : Schematic diagram of a CRT.

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