By Justin A. Daniels
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Additional info for Advances in Environmental Research, Volume 13
2007). Zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum and anthroponotic C. hominis are the major cause of human cryptosporidiosis, although other species including C. meleagridis, C. felis, C. canis, C. suis, C. muris and two corvine genotypes of Cryptosporidium have been associated with human gastroenteritis (Xiao and Ryan 2004; Caccio et al. 2005). Cryptosporidium can survive for months in a latent form outside hosts, as its oocysts retain their infectivity for several months in both salt and fresh water (Fayer et al.
2005). ,1999). Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family. Mycobacteria are aerobic and generally non-motile bacteria, that are characteristically acid-alcohol fast (Ryan and Ray, 2004). , 2004). Mycobacteria are classified as an acid-fast Gram-positive bacterium due to their lack of an outer cell membrane (Ryan and Ray, 2004). All Mycobacterium species share a characteristic cell wall, thicker than in many other bacteria, making a substantial contribution to the hardiness of this genus (Ryan and Ray, 2004).
The intestinal protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexan) and Giardia (G. , 2007). , 2007). , 2007). , 2007). , 2007). G. , 2007). , 2007). The role of animal transmission of human giardiasis is unclear, but the greatest risk of zoonotic transmission seems to be from companion animals such as dogs and cats. Interestingly, the capacity of 22 William J. Snelling, Catherine D. Carrillo, Colm J. Lowery et al. , 2007). , 2007). Zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum and anthroponotic C. hominis are the major cause of human cryptosporidiosis, although other species including C.