Agricultural Proteomics Volume 2: Environmental Stresses by Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh

By Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh

This booklet will conceal numerous issues to intricate how proteomics could give a contribution in our realizing of mechanisms concerned with tension version. the data being collected by means of quite a lot of proteomics applied sciences could finally be used in breeding courses to augment pressure tolerance. This booklet offers entire reports approximately responses of crop and livestock to environmental stresses. demanding situations with regards to pressure phenotyping and integration of proteomics and different omics facts have additionally been addressed.

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Proteomics analysis showed that roots improve their defense mechanism by increasing the levels of PR proteins. Downregulation of proteins involved in cell wall modification indicates that roots limit energy consumption and preserve carbohydrate reserves. Alteration in carbohydrate metabolism is also evident during flood stress, thus levels of ROS scavenging enzymes were decreased. 6 Heavy Metal Toxicity Contamination of the soil with heavy metals (HMs) has become a major global concern as industrialization and increased dependence of agriculture on chemical fertilizers and sewage wastewater irrigation introduce considerable amounts of these toxic substances into agricultural soils.

Chitinase works directly and indirectly as defense mechanism against pathogens and abiotic stresses [131]. Likewise, abundance of b-glucosidase in the roots of maize has been implicated in hormone metabolism and protection against pathogens [132]. Major proportion of downregulated proteins in wheat roots under flood are related to cell wall structure and modification [128]. These proteins include methionine synthase, b-1,3-glucanases, b-glucosidase, b-galactosidase, and (1,3;1,4)-b-glucanase precursor.

Expression patterns of maize root proteins in response to As stress were described by Requejo and Tena [109, 165]. Seven out of the eleven proteins differentially regulated by As in the maize roots were identified to be involved in cellular homeostasis for redox perturbation, including SODs, glutathione peroxidases (GPXs), and PRX. Both GPX and PRX catalyze the reduction of H2O2 to water coupled with the oxidation of GSH to GSSG and PRX (reduced) to PRX (oxidized). This observation suggests that oxidative stress is a major process underlying As toxicity in plants.

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