An Introduction to Social Biology by Alan Dale (Auth.)

By Alan Dale (Auth.)

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Some forms were bipedal and ran about swiftly upon their hind legs. Many of the land reptiles developed armour, which in some took the form of horns upon the head or great bony plates set in one or more rows down the back (Pig. 26). Others converted their tails into great spiked clubs, and some even developed a kind of second brain in the hip region to control the tail ; whilst from the Theromorph reptiles the first mammals were beginning to develop. FIG. 26. Restorations of four extinct reptiles.

Fossils were one, and when he discovered the bits of Piltdown skulls, jaw, and some tools, he started arguments which have gone on from 1912 until 1953. Dawson claimed to have discovered the first bit of Piltdown skull and the mandible in 1908. These finds were not made public until 1912. Then Dawson found in 1915 the portion of another skull at Sheffield Park near to Piltdown. Several local amateurs and a few professionals would not accept these sub-human skulls, nor the flint tools, but they were swamped by leading palaeontologists who made careful examinations and reconstructions of the skull and jaw.

MAN AND EVOLUTION 41 The two oldest types of ape-men known are Java Man from Trinil in Java, and Peking Man originally found in cave deposits about eighty miles from Peking (Fig. 19). There is also a fragmentary jaw from Heidelberg, and material described by Professor Dart, which was discovered in South Africa. The latter, to which has been given the name Australo-pithecus, because of the resemblance to the Australian aboriginals, is believed by Professor Dart to be on the main line of human evolution, and of considerable antiquity; but other authorities believe that the material really represents apes of a much later date which have independently developed a number of human characteristics.

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