Apocalypse : earthquakes, archaeology, and the wrath of God by Amos Nur

By Amos Nur

What if Troy was once no longer destroyed within the epic conflict immortalized by way of Homer? What if many mythical towns of the traditional international didn't meet their ends via conflict and conquest as archaeologists and historians think, yet in truth have been laid waste by means of a strength of nature so catastrophic that religions and legends describe it because the wrath of god? Apocalypse brings the most recent medical proof to undergo on biblical debts, mythology, and the archaeological checklist to discover how historical and glossy earthquakes have formed history--and, for a few civilizations, doubtless heralded the top of the world.

Archaeologists are informed to hunt human motives in the back of the ruins they research. due to this, the sophisticated clues that point out earthquake harm are usually neglected or maybe missed. Amos Nur bridges the space that for too lengthy has separated archaeology and seismology. He examines tantalizing facts of earthquakes at the various world's most famed archaeological websites within the Mediterranean and in different places, together with Troy, Jericho, Knossos, Mycenae, Armageddon, Teotihuacán, and Petra. He unearths what the Bible, the Iliad , and different writings can let us know in regards to the seismic calamities which can have rocked the traditional global. He even explores how earthquakes can have helped guard the lifeless Sea Scrolls. As Nur exhibits, spotting earthquake harm within the shifted foundations and toppled arches of historical ruins is key at the present time as the medical checklist of global earthquake hazards continues to be incomplete. Apocalypse explains the place and why old earthquakes struck--and may strike again.

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Some of these patches are repairs of earthquake damage. Note the incipient crack in the upper left, probably caused by the 1927 Jericho earthquake. indd 15 9/10/2007 7:55:18 AM 16 Chapter 1 the city walls were toppled by earthquakes, and were subsequently repaired, many times in Jerusalem’s past. Confronted with such similar construction patterns in the walls of Mycenae, I had to wonder: Could the collapse of that city around 1200 BC have been caused not by an attacking army from the sea but by an earthquake?

Why does a given area of a fault slip rather than a greater or lesser area? What determines how far the fault will slip before the motion suddenly stops? Since the area and slip of an earthquake determine its magnitude, predicting these quantities for a given fault would be of great use in estimating seismic hazard. One model used to explore this question is the slider-spring instability model. Like a heavy block on a tabletop, the two sides of a fault can withstand significant stress before they slide past each other; friction locks the two surfaces together until the stress exceeds the frictional resistance.

Indd 21 9/10/2007 7:55:19 AM 22 Chapter 1 occurred, making such attributions more solid. But in many cases, human action has been proposed simply because of the nature of archaeology: when destruction is discovered, archaeologists are predisposed to look for the action of man rather than nature. The challenge then falls to earth scientists: Can we deduce sufficient evidence from the geography of earthquakes, and from the clues in the ruins themselves, to propose otherwise? How important is earthquake destruction to understanding archaeology?

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