Apoptosis : physiology and pathology by Douglas R. Green, John C. Reed

By Douglas R. Green, John C. Reed

"Apoptosis, or telephone dying, should be pathological, an indication of disorder and harm, or physiological, a method crucial for regular overall healthiness. This pathological dysregulation of mobile demise might be characterised by means of both an excessive amount of lack of crucial cells within the middle, mind, and different tissues with little regenerative capability or by way of too little mobilephone turnover in self-renewing tissues, giving upward push to melanoma and different maladies. Read more...

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Schematic representation of immunostimulatory, proinflammatory signaling by the TNF-R and DR3 systems. Binding of TNF and TL1A to their respective receptors leads to receptor trimerization and formation of a receptor signaling complex. First the adaptor protein TNF-R1–associated death domain (TRADD) is recruited via its DD to the DD of the receptor. TRADD then serves as an assembly platform for binding of TRAF2, cIAP1/2, and the receptor interacting kinase 1 (RIP1). TRAFs and cIAPs conjugate ubiquitin chains to various proteins in the complex, which allows for the recruitment of further signaling proteins, including the TAK/TAB and the IKK complexes, ultimately leading to activation of NF-κB and the JNK and p38 MAP kinase pathways.

Oost TK, Sun C, Armstrong RC, Al-Assaad AS, Betz SF, Deckwerth TL, Ding H, Elmore SW, Meadows RP, Olejniczak ET, Shi Y. (2001) Structural basis of caspase-7 inhibition by XIAP. Cell 104:769–80. Conte D, Liston P, Wong JW, Wright KE, Korneluk RG. (2001) Oleksijew A, Oltersdorf T, Rosenberg SH, Shoemaker AR, Tomaselli KJ, Zou H, Fesik SW. (2004) Discovery of potent antagonists of the antiapoptotic protein XIAP for the treat- Thymocyte-targeted overexpression of XIAP transgene disrupts T lymphoid apoptosis and maturation.

As a result, these mice exhibit a massive accumulation of lymphocytes. This had been mistaken for lymphoproliferation (lpr) due to the fact that, before the advent of apoptosis research, scientists automatically assumed that accumulation of cells would be due to abnormally high proliferation rather than a block in cell death. However, it turned out that T cells in lpr mice have a defect in cell death and that they therefore accumulate. , 1992). When the CD95 ligand (CD95L/FasL/APO1L) was then cloned by the Nagata team, this time 26 employing both a purification and an expression cloning approach, this prediction turned out to be true: the gene encoding CD95L is mutated in gld mice.

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