Argument Structure:: Representation and Theory by James B. Freeman

By James B. Freeman

This monograph first provides a style of diagramming argument macrostructure, synthesizing the traditional circle and arrow process with the Toulmin version. A theoretical justification of this system via a dialectical figuring out of argument, a serious exam of Toulmin on warrants, an intensive dialogue of the linked-convergent contrast, and an account of the right kind reconstruction of enthymemes follows.

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But just what the major issues in argument macrostructure are and how the Toulmin model may advance dealing with them is the subject of the next section. 4 Integrating the Standard Approach and the Toulmin Model Our discussion in section one indicates that the standard approach is designed to analyze argument texts, where one person has presented his or her overall case for a given claim or claims. Arguments laid out this way are standardly called arguments as products. We contend that Toulmin’s model should be thought of as analyzing arguments as dialogical exchanges between a proponent and challenger, what are standardly called arguments as process or, if the exchange is regulated by certain rules, procedure.

Should the proponent enunciate a modality in response to this question, the challenger could continue the dialogue by asking How can you be so sure? Why do your premises make you so sure? The challenger may ask this question, even without the proponent’s explicitly stating a modality. By putting forward the conclusion as supported by the premises, the proponent is claiming at least that all things being equal, the conclusion is acceptable, given the acceptability of the premises. Why the challenger would ask this question leads us directly to consider the remaining element in Toulmin’s model.

There are excepting circumstances where they will need to be set aside. Associated with warrants then are conditions of exception or rebuttal. Finally, warrants may be challenged. What the proponent of an argument offers to establish their authority Toulmin calls backing. The representation of arguments, then, involves these six types of elements. Toulmin arranges or lays out these elements in the following way to diagram argument structure (See Fig. 11): Fig. 11 D So, Since W Q C Unless R On account of B This is all straightforward.

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