By Anothony D. Viazis DDS MS
B. Saunders. functional, colour photographic atlas of orthodontics, for, graduate and undergraduate scholars, basic dentistry practitioners, and orthodontists. provides a step by step method of diagnostic and therapy strategies.
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Additional resources for Atlas of Orthodontics A Guide to Clinical Efficiency
Some patients may suffer with increased symptoms during treatment which must also be discussed at the beginning of treatment. Where patients experience symptoms during treatment, treatment should be directed at eliminating occlusal disharmony and joint noises whilst reassuring the patient. Standard Trauma Following a well publicised case of eye trauma in a patient wearing headgear28 a number of safety headgear products have been designed and explicit guidelines are now available. These measures include safety bows (Figs 13 and 14), rigid neck straps (Fig.
Very often impacting canines are missed and the patient not referred for treatment until 15 or 16 years of age. Not only is this negligent, but the patient may then need to undergo a lengthy course of treatment at a socially difficult time. Teeth in occlusion The overjet and overbite should be measured and the incisor classification assessed. The British Standards Institute (BS EN21942 Part 1 (1992) Glossary of Dental terms) defines the incisor classification as follows: Need for extractions < 5 mm 5–10 mm > 10 mm Normal (physiological) development Fraenum Small teeth Missing teeth Midline supernumerary No Possibly Yes 1 2 Fig.
Minor apical root resorption is a common consequence of orthodontic tooth movement. However, this resorption can occasionally be severe. Tooth movement in the presence of apical pathology is known to accelerate resorption and should be dealt with prior to commencing treatment. Lower arch The lower arch should be examined and planned in the first instance. Whatever treatment is carried out in the lower arch often determines the treatment to be carried out in the upper. Examine the teeth for any tipping, rotations and crowding.