Attacking Faulty Reasoning: A Practical Guide to by T. Edward Damer

By T. Edward Damer

More and more collage classes and courses require a severe pondering component--and comprise assignments intended to degree your serious considering talents. ATTACKING defective REASONING: a pragmatic consultant TO FALLACY-FREE ARGUMENTS, 6th version, might actually help brush up on those skills--and methods to improve the logical, persuasive arguments you would like now and all through your profession. this helpful guide addresses greater than 60 universal fallacies of common sense with the aid of over two hundred memorable examples. It offers reasons and counsel for heading off incorrect pondering, and is a perfect source whilst writing papers, essays, or arguments.

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S. senator, (premise) what is an argument? 21 Therefore, John Morgan is thirty-five years old or older. (conclusion) The conclusion of this or any deductive argument simply spells out what is already implicit in the premises. If one can get others to accept the crucial premises, which already include the conclusion, then the arguer’s work is done. The argument is indeed so strong that its conclusion cannot be denied. A very effective strategy that is sometimes used in argumentation is that of constructing an argument in this deductive way so that the conclusion is, in effect, accepted when the crucial premise is accepted.

It is self-evident that if we do not even understand a claim, we are in no position to determine whether it is acceptable. One should also not accept a premise that is based on a so-called unwarranted assumption, in that it implicitly uses a highly questionable assumption that seems to give credence to the premise. ” Since that assumption is unacceptable, the claim that rests on it would also be unacceptable. According to the acceptability principle, then, the premises of an argument should be regarded as acceptable if each of them conforms to at least one of the standards of acceptability and if none of them conforms to one of the conditions of unacceptability.

And even though one might not have the evidence for a claim in the immediate argumentative situation, it is reasonable to accept a claim that could be easily defended by reference to a readily accessible authoritative source. Eyewitness reports are more problematic. Experience tells us that there is good reason to be skeptical about many of them. However, if the eyewitness report is not contradicted by another person, by one’s own personal observations, or by credible counterevidence, there is no reason not to accept it.

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