Basalts and Phase Diagrams: An Introduction to the by Stearns Morse

By Stearns Morse

A publication on part diagrams in igneous petrology, with the early components of the chapters being ordinary and the later components being complicated. issues diversity from simple platforms akin to Anorthite-Albite to extra complex fabric corresponding to an creation to Schreinemakers' principles.

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Additional resources for Basalts and Phase Diagrams: An Introduction to the Quantitative Use of Phase Diagrams in Igneous Petrology

Sample text

Alkali basalt: Nepheline is present well within the volume, but generally absent near the critical plane. Pyroxene is high in CaO. No hypersthene occurs. Plagioclase near An50' commonly zoned to oligoclase. Olivine both as phenocrysts and in groundmass. Characteristically holocrystalline, without the interstitial residuum common in tholeiite. The basalt tetrahedron is a model, and it does not satisfy all the characteristics of natural basalts. In particular, it ignores apatite and Fe- Ti oxides.

As an example, suppose W = c + 2 - = 1; the system is said to be univariant, and a single statement, either about pressure, or about temperature, or about the concentrations of components, suffices to describe the system completely. This is true whether c = 1 and = 2, or whether c = 19 and = 20. Suppose W = 2; the system is divariant, and two statements, one each about two of the variables P, T, X, are required to describe the system completely, and so on. 3) is one in which W = 0, and such a system with = c + 2 is invariant, a state which is very informative because for any particular set of phases, it is unique.

V o 100 200 TEMPERATURE. 2. Phase diagram for water at high pressures, after Bridgman (references listed in Clark, 1966, p. 372). Ice IV is a metastable phase occurring in the p. T region of Ice V. The Phenomena of Melting and Crystallization 27 pressure favors the denser phase, and the higher polymorphs of ice melt with an increase in volume, the solid phase is favored, and higher and higher temperatures are required to melt ice at very high pressures. Note that at about 24 kbar, the melting point of iceVII is the same as the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure!

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