Basic Petroleum Geology and log Analysis by Halliburton

By Halliburton

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In sedimentary rocks, all of these pores are fluid saturated. The fluid is sometimes oil and/or gas, but water will always be present. Most water found within the porosity of a reservoir is moderately saline. The degree of salinity is dependent upon the chemical history of that water. Formation water is commonly salty because of the fact that most sediments are deposited in marine environments. During deposition of these sediments, the salty formation water will become entrapped within the porosity.

6%. 0%. Halliburton © 2001, Halliburton 32 Basic Petroleum Geology Basic Petroleum Geology and Log Analysis Halliburton © 2001, Halliburton • Compaction — Over a long period of time sediments can accumulate and create formations that are thousands of feet thick. The weight Figure 23I Sedimentation process: Layer A is compacted of the by layer B overlying sediments squeezes the particles together into the tightest arrangement possible. The load pressure also squeezes out the water that occupies the pore spaces between the particles, thus reducing the bulk volume of the formation.

Subsurface mapping is used to work out the geology of petroleum deposits. Threedimensional subsurface mapping is made possible by the use of well data and helps to decipher the underground geology of a large area where there are no outcrops at the surface. Some of the commonly prepared subsurface geological maps used for exploration and production include; (1) geophysical surveys, (2) structural maps and sections, (3) isopach maps, and (4) lithofacies maps. Geophysical Surveys Geophysics is the study of the earth by quantitative physical methods.

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