By Oleg Dvorkin, Leonid Dvorkin

There are enlightened uncomplicated elements of clinical concrete technological know-how. there's given precis of recent rules approximately hardening and structure-forming of cement stone and urban, rheological and technological houses of concrete mixes, energy, pressure and different homes, which ascertain concrete function reliability and sturdiness. There are thought of easy kinds of common weight cement concrete, light-weight and mobile concrete, non-cement mineral binders concrete, mortars.

The e-book is addressed to scholars and post-graduate scholars of development specialties of upper academic institutions, scientists and technologists.

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**Additional resources for Basics of Concrete Science**

**Example text**

Admixtures Chemical admixtures European standard (EN934-2) suggested to classify chemical admixtures as follows. Admixtures by classification (Standard EN934-2) Type of admixture Water reducer – plasticizer* High water reducer – Technological effect Reduce water required for given consistency or improve workability for a given water content Essentially reduce water required for given superplasticizer** consistency or high improve workability for a given wat er cont ent Increase bond of water in Prevention of losses of water caused by concrete mixture bleeding (wat er gain) Ent rainment of required amount of air in Air-ent raining concret e during mixing and obtaining of uniform distribution of entrained-air voids in concrete structure Accelerator of sett ing time Accelerator of hardening Retarder Shorten the time of sett ing Increase the rate of hardening of concrete with change of setting time or without it.

52 sm 2 /sec 3 mm Hz Fig. 9. 13) where Іu – minimum intensity of vibrations of mixture in the construction; І – intensity which workability (Vebe) of mixture is determined (Vb); αc – coefficient relying on configuration of construction and degree of its reinforcement. 53 CHAPTER 3 CONCRETE HARDENING AND STRUCTURE-FORMING L. Dvorkin Concrete hardening includes the complex of processes of cement hydration. Physical and chemical processes of structure formation of cement paste make substantial influence on concrete hardening.

I. Soroker (Russia) and F. McMillan (USA) had set the rule of constancy of water quantity (RCW). It was found that at unchanging water quantity the change of cement quantity within the limits of 200-400 kg/m3 does not influence substantially on workability of concrete mixtures. 47 W, kg/m3 C/W Fig. 7. 3 – slump of concrete mixtures: 10, 5, 2 sm. st – coefficients of moistening of fine and coarse aggregates; S and St – accordingly quantities of sand and coarse aggregate, kg/m3 48 Application of aggregates substantially multiplies the water content of concrete mixtures, necessary for achievement of the set mobility (workability).