Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam by Chouki El Hamel

By Chouki El Hamel

Black Morocco: A heritage of Slavery, Race and Islam chronicles the experiences, identification, and corporation of enslaved black humans in Morocco from the sixteenth century to the start of the 20 th century. It demonstrates the level to which faith orders society but additionally the level to which the commercial and political stipulations impression the non secular discourse and the ideology of enslavement. the translation and alertness of Islam didn't guarantee the freedom and integration of black Moroccan ex-slaves into society. It starts with the Islamic criminal discourse and racial stereotypes that existed in Moroccan society best as much as the period of Mawlay Isma'il (r. 1672-1727), with a distinct emphasis at the black military in the course of and after his reign. the 1st a part of the booklet offers a story concerning the legal discourse on race, concubinage and slavery in addition to historic occasions and developments that aren't renowned in published scholarship and western contexts.  The moment a part of the ebook is conceptually bold; it provides the reader with a deeper experience of the ancient and sociological implications of the tale being instructed throughout a protracted time period, from the seventeenth to the 20th centuries.  notwithstanding the most powerful point of theses chapters issues the "black army," an incredible component to the dialogue is the function of woman slaves.  one of many difficulties the historian faces with this sort of research is that it needs to relaxation on a limited "evidentiary base." This ebook has broadened this base and clarified the importance of lady slaves relating to the military and Moroccan society at large.

Black Morocco redefines the phrases of the scholarly debate about the historic nature of Moroccan slavery and proposes an original analysis of matters pertaining to race, concubinage and gender, with a special focus on their theoretical aspects.  The Moroccan procedure of racial definition used to be in actual fact "racialist" and was once in reality a curious inversion of the Western racist version.  Whereas within the western version "one drop" of black blood identifies one as black, within the Moroccan version, "one drop" of white blood identifies one as Arab (i.e., privileged).  This method helped create a"nationalist" Moroccan Arab majority and while subjugated black ancestry (i.e., these with no the "one drop" of Arab blood), noticeable as having more pertaining to the ancient antecedents of slavery.  It bargains a new paradigm for the learn of race within the zone that may remodel the best way we approach and comprehend ethnicity and racial identities in North Africa and most crucially it is helping get rid of the tradition of silence -- the refusal to engage in discussions approximately slavery, racial attitudes, and gender issues.

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Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam

Black Morocco: A heritage of Slavery, Race and Islam chronicles the experiences, identification, and enterprise of enslaved black humans in Morocco from the sixteenth century to the start of the 20 th century. It demonstrates the level to which faith orders society but in addition the level to which the commercial and political stipulations impact the spiritual discourse and the ideology of enslavement.

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AND [you ought to] marry the single from among you as well as such of your male and female slaves (ima’ikum) as are fit [for marriage]. ” Asad, The Message of the Qur’an, 59–60. Az-Zamakhshari also explains that the ama in this verse means servant of God because all believing human beings, be they free or slaves, are God’s servants. Az-Zamakhshari, al-Kashshaf, vol. 1, 361. 64 This is similar to 4:25. The verse implies that the only sexual relations accepted in the Qur’an are through wedlock. 63 36 Race, Gender, and Slavery in the Islamic Discourse 30.

He collected about 600,000 reports but accepted only 7,275. 71 Although a critical analysis was undertaken by the traditionists or, rather, the transmitters, to compile collections of sound Hadith, they were not very successful. The following statement by James Robson sums up good examples of forged traditions attributed to the Prophet Muhammad: One readily notices phrases from the Old and New Testaments put into the mouth of the Prophet as his sayings. There are references to towns far from Arabia which were to be conquered, even to towns not yet founded in the Prophet’s time.

These major schools survived and prevailed over the entire Islamic world. All of them condoned and regulated the institution of slavery in Islam. In the view of John Esposito: The early law schools, which had begun only during the late Umayyad period (ca. 720), flourished under caliphal patronage of the ulama. Although Islam has no clergy or priesthood, by the eighth century the ulama had become a professional elite of religious leaders, a distinct social class within Muslim society. 13 This study refers mainly to the Maliki school, the most prevalent in Africa and the official doctrine in the Maghreb and western Africa.

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