By Barbara Krauthamer
From the overdue eighteenth century during the finish of the Civil warfare, Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians received, offered, and owned Africans and African americans as slaves, a undeniable fact that continued after the tribes' elimination from the Deep South to Indian Territory. The tribes formulated racial and gender ideologies that justified this tradition and marginalized loose black humans within the Indian international locations good after the Civil struggle and slavery had ended. throughout the finish of the 19th century, ongoing conflicts between Choctaw, Chickasaw, and U.S. lawmakers left untold numbers of former slaves and their descendants within the Indian countries with no citizenship in both the Indian countries or the USA. during this groundbreaking research, Barbara Krauthamer rewrites the historical past of southern slavery, emancipation, race, and citizenship to bare the centrality of local American slaveholders and the black humans they enslaved.
Krauthamer's exam of slavery and emancipation highlights the methods Indian women's gender roles replaced with the arriving of slavery and adjusted back after emancipation and divulges complicated dynamics of race that formed the lives of black humans and Indians either prior to and after removal.
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Extra info for Black Slaves, Indian Masters: Slavery, Emancipation, and Citizenship in the Native American South
16 introduction 1 Black Slaves, Indian Masters Race, Gender, and Power in the Deep South In the early nineteenth century, Choctaw and Chickasaw men and women embraced the idea of acquiring black people as property, equating blackness with lifelong, hereditary, and degraded servitude. First in Mississippi and then after their removal in the 1830s to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), wealthy and middling Choctaws borrowed, bartered, and paid cash on the barrel to buy enslaved black people from nearby white slave owners, professional slave traders, and each other.
14 introduction In the second half of the book, I examine the history of emancipation and black people’s struggles to create meaningful lives in Indian Territory. Slavery finally came to an end in the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations in 1866, when the two nations entered a joint treaty with the United States. This protracted moment of emancipation is the main subject of chapter 4. This chapter highlights the violence directed at emancipated black people in the months after the war’s end and considers their strategies for enlisting federal assistance against recalcitrant slaveholders.
Government officials aimed to “civilize” or assimilate Native peoples by forcibly channeling them farther into the market economy and transforming their material conditions. Beginning in 1785, the federal government developed and pursued an Indian policy largely engineered by Henry Knox, the secretary of war under George Washington, that set forth two interrelated goals: peaceful land acquisition and programs to “civilize” and assimilate Indians. S. 29 Knox conceded that the United States was morally bound to recognize Indians’ rights to the soil based on their prior occupancy, but he also argued that their uncivilized use of the land warranted direct intervention.