Blood Expiation in Hittite and Biblical Ritual: Origins, by Yitzhaq Feder

By Yitzhaq Feder

This pioneering learn examines using blood to purge the consequences of sin and impurity in Hittite and biblical ritual. the concept blood atones for sins holds a well-liked position in either Jewish and Christian traditions. the writer strains this thought again to its earliest documentation within the fourteenth- and thirteenth-century B.C.E. texts from Hittite Anatolia, during which the smearing of blood is used as a method of expiation, purification, and consecration. This ceremony parallels, in either its process and ambitions, the biblical sin supplying. the writer argues that this custom stems from a standard culture manifested in either cultures. furthermore, this e-book goals to decipher and elucidate the symbolism of the perform of blood smearing by way of looking to establish the sociocultural context within which the expiatory importance of blood originated. therefore, it's crucial interpreting for a person attracted to the that means and efficacy of formality, the origins of Jewish and Christian notions of sin and atonement, and the beginning of the biblical blood ceremony.

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Additional info for Blood Expiation in Hittite and Biblical Ritual: Origins, Context, and Meaning

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1–6. The earlier proponants of this latter order include Elliger, who associated H with the redaction of Leviticus (Leviticus, 14–20). 5. See also the detailed analyis of Gane (Cult and Character, 45–90). the biblical sin offering 37 The Tent Ritual. The two cases described in Lev 4:3–21 require a two-stage sin offering ritual, which involves blood manipulations inside the Tent of Meeting and in the Courtyard. The procedure is described as follows: 3If the anointed priest does wrong to incriminate the people, he shall offer for the wrong he has done a bull of the herd without blemish as a sin offering to YHWH.

BABBAR ga-an-ga-⌈ti-ia-zi⌉-ia ⌈ga⌉-an-ga-da-an-zi E[(GIR-Š)]U-⌊ma⌋ SILA4 am-ba-aš-ši-ti-i wa-ar-nu-wa-an-zi nu E[N SÍSK]UR UŠ-KE-EN na-aš-za ar-ḫa I-NA É-ŠU pa-iz-zi Then he proceeds with the praise ritual and they perform the ritual of praise with a sheep. Then they purify the patron along with the deity using silver and gangati. But afterwards they burn a lamb as a burnt offering. The ritual patron bows, and he goes away to his house. As in the Šamuha (Rev. 22–23) and Walkui rituals (Obv. 80 As noted above, fish are frequently employed in the cults of the Night Goddess and Pirinkir.

On this term, see Boysan-Dietrich, Das hethitische Lehmhaus, 83–84.  III, 19. ”) I am very grateful to Prof. Jared L.  The main difficulty is the reading of the second sign, understood here as AM. Regarding the last sign, I have followed Otten’s collation, AŠ, although in the photos it resembles NI. Previous attempts to understand this line, besides being based on substantial emendations, are untenable on contextual grounds. -na-aš (Rituels de fondation hittites, 170). -[l]a-na-aš (p. 72). ” Though attractive, this reading does not fit the signs, nor can it be reconciled with the fact that the figurines in the text are constructed from bronze, not clay!

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