Body Contouring: Art, Science, and Clinical Practice by Michael R. Davis (auth.), Melvin A. Shiffman, Alberto Di

By Michael R. Davis (auth.), Melvin A. Shiffman, Alberto Di Giuseppe (eds.)


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In addition, our erect posture contributed to the lumbosacral curve, which is also unique to primates. Evolutionary biology suggests that an hourglass figure, with a small waist and full buttocks, has historically been associated with female reproductive potential and physical health across cultures, generations, and ethnicities [1]. 7 in women remains the ideal of beauty even as different ethnic groups prefer different gluteal shapes and curvatures. As women age and fertility declines, skin laxity increases and the shape of the gluteal region usually changes as the content and distribution of fat and muscle change [2, 3].

Just as with the perfusion of the breast, innervation of the skin comes from all directions. Superiorly the cervical plexus contributes fibers that course beneath the platysma to innervate the upper portion of the breast. These fibers course in the subcutaneous tissue and can be elevated and preserved with skin flaps of proper thickness. Intercostal segmental nerves contribute the remainder of breast sensation and should be viewed as the Fig. 4 Innervation: Branches of the cervical plexus supply the superior breast.

Breast tissue can extend across the midline and beyond the inframammary crease. ” Mature breast morphology projects off the chest wall in a conical fashion with its apex deep to the nipple–areola complex. Development of overall breast shape is multifactorial. Breast form is dependent on fat content and location, muscular and skeletal chest wall contour, and skin quality. These structures display complex attachments and interactions to result in the final form. Breast shape and size is unique to each individual and is determined largely by heredity.

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