Bones and Cartilage. Developmental and Evolutionary Skeletal by Brian K. Hall

By Brian K. Hall

Bones and Cartilage presents the main in-depth overview and synthesis assembled at the subject, throughout all vertebrates. It examines the functionality, improvement and evolution of bone and cartilage as tissues, organs and skeletal structures. It describes how bone and cartilage enhance in embryos and are maintained in adults, how bone is repaired after we holiday a leg, or regenerates while a newt grows a brand new limb, or a lizard a brand new tail.

The moment version of Bones and Cartilage contains the newest wisdom of molecular, mobile, developmental and evolutionary approaches, that are built-in to stipulate a unified self-discipline of developmental and evolutionary skeletal biology. also, insurance comprises how the molecular and mobile points of bones and cartilage vary in several skeletal structures and throughout species, in addition to the newest stories and hypotheses of relationships among skeletal cells and the newest details on coupling among osteocytes and osteoclasts All chapters were revised and up-to-date to incorporate the newest learn.

  • Offers whole assurance of each point of bone and cartilage, with up-to-date references and wide illustrations
  • Integrates improvement and evolution of the skeleton, in addition a synthesis of differentiation, development and patterning
  • Treats all degrees from molecular to scientific, embryos to evolution, and covers all vertebrates in addition to invertebrate cartilages
  • Includes new chapters on evolutionary skeletal biology that spotlight basic version and variability, and version outdoor the norm (neomorphs, atavisms)
  • Updates hypotheses at the origination of cartilage utilizing new phylogenetic, mobile and genetic data
  • Covers stem cells in embryos and adults, together with mesenchymal stem cells and their use in genetic engineering of cartilage, and the idea that of the stem mobilephone niche

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3 for scales), osteoblasts could be seen retreating from the mineralization front of the acellular bone. Ekanayake and Hall (1987, 1988) saw a similar phenomenon in vertebral bone of the Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes, and identified two types of mononucleated resorptive cells, both of which lack ruffled borders. With our human orientation, we are accustomed to thinking of multinucleated mammalian osteoclasts, which adhere to bone through a specialized cytoplasmic region, the ruffled border. Many teleost osteoclasts are multinucleated with ruffled borders and sealing zones (Fig.

Both tendon and fibrocartilage attach to the intermediate phalanx (IP) via attachment zone fibrocartilage (AZF). (B) A higher magnification of the attachment of the extensor tendon shown in A to show fibrocartilage (FC) on the deep surface of the tendon. Modified from Ralphs and Benjamin (1994). H. 22, now located at the end of Meckel’s cartilage. 3, and see Ekanayake and Hall (1997) for details. (Fig. 10). Poole and his colleagues have demonstrated that: ● ● ● ● ● ● pericellular capsules of fine fibrils characterize deep but not superficial canine tibial articular cartilage; adult human articular cartilage contains similar chondrones; chondrones can be physically isolated as intact structural units; chondrones are rich in proteoglycans (Fig.

34. See Gritzka et al. (1973) for acellularity, the chapters in Kuettner et al. (1986) for overviews of articular cartilage, Mow et al. (1980) for the biomechanics of articular cartilages, and Penttinen et al. (1971, 1972) for fracture healing under reduced atmospheric pressure. 35. See Weiss and Watabe (1978a,b) for the terms anosteocytic and osteocytic. Moss (1961a) and Enlow and Brown (1956, 1957, 1958) contain the bulk of the classic histological studies on acellular bone in the teleosts. For recent analyses see the studies by Ann Huysseune, Jean-Yves Sire and P.

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