By Jamie Davies
Branching morphogenesis, the production of branched constructions within the physique, is a key characteristic of animal and plant improvement. This booklet brings jointly, for the 1st time, specialist researchers engaged on numerous branching structures to give a cutting-edge view of the mechanisms that regulate branching morphogenesis. platforms thought of diversity from unmarried cells, to blood vessel and drainage duct platforms to complete physique plans, and methods diversity from statement via test to particular biophysical modelling. the result's an built-in assessment of branching.
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Extra resources for Branching Morphogenesis (Molecular Biology Intelligence Unit)
407^i2 The modulation of particular aspects of differentiation by neurotrophin activity appears to depend on the cell-surface distribution of Trk receptor isoforms, the activation of individual transduction pathways, the availability of downstream signaling substrates, and the developmental context of exposed neurons. ^^'^^5'^^^'^^ For example, actin, micrombules, and numerous microtubule-associated proteins have been reported to be regulated by NT-3 and BDNF at the level of both transcription and post-translational modification.
Interestingly, only GPI-anchored ephrin-A signaling stimulates morphological changes that do not direcdy contribute to initial axon guidance. ^^' -279,288 p^j. "^^^'"^^^'"^^^ In combination, these recent studies demonstrate that ephrins serve numerous roles during neuronal morphogenesis, collectively regulating axonal or dendritic outgrowth, fasciculation, and arborization. Semaphorins Semaphorins constitute a large family of secreted and transmembrane proteins variously involved in growth cone collapse (CoUapsin-l/Semaphorin IIIA ^), axon guidance through chemorepulsion (CoUapsin-l/Semaphorin IIIA, HID '•^^^), stimulation or inhibition of axonal arborization (Semaphorin IILA85-87,29 ^^ ^j^j neuronal apoptosis (Semaphorin IIIA^^^).
Rho'Family GTPases The earliest epigenetic control of neuronal branching appears to trigger rapid local modulation of the actin cytomatrix through one pathway, while inducing differential gene expression through a more protracted downstream signaling cascade. ^'^5,77,8^,312,313,536,545-549 p^^. ^^^ Characteristically, Branching Morphogenesis in Vertebrate Neurons 35 the majority of Rho-family GTPases involved in early axonal morphogenesis demonstrate overlapping roles in regulating similar aspects of dendritic differentiation during successive stages of neuronal development.