By J. E. Gillott
This article is interdisciplinary and is particular in scope to a dialogue of the significance of clay in engineering geology. it truly is basically addressed to geologists and mineralogists and to these civil engineers who're concemed with the geotechnical sciences. Its item is to introduce geologists and mineralogists to the usually unusual terminology and literature of sorne features of soil mechanics and correspondingly to introduce engineers to pertinent info in geology and mineralogy which pertains to clay. Geologists and engineers occasionally use an analogous time period with a unique that means and conversely they connect an identical aspiring to diverse phrases. for instance, in engineering terminology compaction implies a mechanical procedure yet to geologists it exhibits lessen in void ratio as a result of traditional reasons. Likewise rock, as a rule considered as a difficult fabric, within the strict feel comprises non-coherent mineral subject. This has been termed regolith via geologists and soil through engineers to the vexation of agricultural scientists. Confusion may be refrained from via common contract yet frequently it truly is most likely that the query can be determined by means of utilization.
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Extra info for Clay in Engineering Geology
At Portal Creek, gneiss in the roadcut has been dated at about two billion years old. This ancient rock is unconformably overlain by an outcrop of 2 million-year-old Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, the north ernmost limit ofthe extensive rhyolite welded-ash flows erupted from the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field. At Dudley Creek, chalcopy rite (a copper sulfide mineral) and various other ores occur in the Precambrian rocks but not in sufficient quantity to warrant commer cial mining. At the same place many terminal moraines block the side valleys.
Further south, terminal moraines block most of the side valleys coming out of the Absaroka Mountains east of the Yellowstone Val ley. Not far south of Pine Creek, the road steps up over the terminal moraine left by the large glacier that flowed down the valley from the highlands of north-central Yellowstone. This glacier came down the valley during the Pinedale glacial stage, which started about 70,000 years ago, and reached its maximum about 13,000 years ago. Appar ently there was an even older glacial period, called the Bull Lake stage, between 160 and 130 thousand years ago.
Obsidian is a glassy rock with no crystals that forms when dry rhyolite magma hardens quickly. Geologists have speculated as to why obsidian has no visible crystals; none can be seen even under a very high powered microscope. It was once assumed that the liquid rock must have hardened very quickly-possibly because the lava flowed against the side of a glacier or a valley wall. In general, rocks that cool quickly do have smaller-sized crystals than those that cool slowly because it takes a lot of time for a large crystal to grow.