Concise Guide to Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Neurology, by Jeffrey L. Cummings

By Jeffrey L. Cummings

Regardless of dramatic advances in our figuring out of the mind and mind problems, we nonetheless have a lot uncharted territory to discover in neuropsychiatry and behavioral neurology, speedily transforming into disciplines dedicated to realizing the behavioral results of mind disorder and utilizing this data to enhance sufferer care. the second one variation of this well known pocket consultant (part of yank Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.'s Concise courses sequence; it actually matches into the pocket of a lab coat or jacket) is up-to-date all through, that includes new medicines and new diagnostic techniques and standards. just like the first variation, it offers short synopses of the foremost neuropsychiatric and neurobehavioral syndromes, discusses their scientific evaluation, and offers instructions for administration, plus a word list, index, and bibliographies that consult with extra large studying. The authors summarize diagnostic and remedy details in easy-to-read tables, together with scientific beneficial properties, underlying pathophysiology, and healing procedures for the most important neuropsychiatric issues. starting with a number of chapters on neuropsychiatric evaluation tools, uncomplicated neuroanatomic and neurochemical ideas, neuropsychiatric signs (including unexplained neurological indicators, resembling generalized anxiousness, panic, and conversion and dissociative problems) and syndromes (e.g., frontal lobe, aphasia), and the differential analysis of significant neuropsychiatric issues (e.g., melancholy, mania, psychosis, anxiety), the authors set up next chapters via sickness: -Visual/visuospatial impairment, that's serious to human survival and so much critical with right-brain disorder and damage, the place it motives quite a few neuropsychiatric indicators -Disorders of reminiscence (etiology, anatomy, and exams for issues comparable to amnesia), epilepsy (especially temporal lobe epilepsy), dementia and delirium (emphasizing the scientific standards settling on different dementias), and circulation problems (including ParkinsonAs sickness and hyperkinetic circulate issues and tremors) -Stroke (cerebrovascular illness is likely one of the most typical motives of got habit switch in adults) and mind tumors (with linked neuropsychiatric morbidity) -White subject illnesses (e.g., a number of sclerosis), with got or hereditary leukoencephalopathies, which are extra categorized pathologically or in response to the underlying metabolic abnormality; and head damage (e. g., intracranial hematoma, an infection, epilepsy) and its sequelae (e.g., character and cognitive alterations, melancholy, posttraumatic rigidity ailment) the ultimate bankruptcy covers the most recent remedies, comparable to neuropsychopharmacology (e.g., antidepressants, antipsychotics, sedative hypnotics, mood-stabilizers, anticonvulsants), electroconvulsive remedy, vagus nerve stimulation, and neurosurgical strategies (i.e., destruction of huge tracts of white subject to and from the frontal lobes). An instantly helpful scientific spouse for psychiatrists and geriatric psychiatrists, neurologists, and neuropsychologists either in the U.S. and in a foreign country, this quantity is usually exceedingly functional for college students and citizens due to its extensive scope and simply available details.

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In tissue, the proton unites with an electron, and the two particles convert their mass into radiation energy. They annihilate, releasing two coincident gamma rays at 180 degrees to each other. These are detected by a scanner, and, via computerized reconstruction of the data, an image is created. Several different positron emitters are available, but most work is done with carbon-11, fluorine-18, and oxygen-15. The resulting images are of CBF or metabolism. With both PET and SPECT, it is possible to label ligands for a variety of drugs and neuroreceptors—for example, the D2 receptor, the benzodiazepine receptor (flumazenil), and opiate receptors.

Recently, direct links between this structure and the limbic system have been found. Some important associations between neuroanatomic sites and behavior are listed in Table 2–4. TABLE 2–4. Structure Cingulate gyrus Some brain-behavior associations Behavior Maternal behavior, play, vocalization, attention, pain, motivation Hippocampus Memory, anxiety Amygdala Fear, anxiety, aggression, sexual behavior, psychosis, mood Septum Pleasure, addiction Hypothalamus Eating, drinking, sex, aggression, hormonal regulation Reticular activating system Arousal, sleep-wake cycle Entorhinal cortex Memory, sensory integration Ventral striatum Motivation 33 ■ BRAIN-BEHAVIOR RELATIONSHIPS Theories of localization implied that specific mental functions resided in specific locations in the brain.

Adenylate cyclase, generating cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), is one common system. Genes such as c-fos may be switched on. Many receptors have been described, but the main ones of relevance are shown in Table 2–1. Neurons have a soma, an axon, dendrites, and synapses. Tubulin, a protein in the axon, acts in the transport of molecules down the axon. Larger axons are surrounded by a myelin sheath that increases the speed of conduction. There are five types of glial cells: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, Schwann cells, and ependymal cells.

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