Constructing Achievement Tests, 2nd Edition by Norman E. Gronlund

By Norman E. Gronlund

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Extra info for Constructing Achievement Tests, 2nd Edition

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That is, when the various test items are equally adaptable to the learning outcomes and subject matter to be measured, multiplechoice items will generally provide a more adequate measure than the other item types. Add to this the fact that multiple-choice items can measure a variety of learning outcomes, ranging from simple to complex, and it is easy to see why this item type is regarded so highly and used so widely. An effective test-construction procedure, one that takes into account both of the above considerations, is to start each item as a multiplechoice item, switching to another item type only when the learning outcome or subject matter makes it desirable to do so.

5 Formulates a test plan that is in harmony with the principles Note tliat the terms used to describe the specific learning outcomes indicate behaviors that can be demonstrated to an observer. That is, the outcomes are obseruable behaviors that can be called forth by test items. 4ction verbs such as these indicate precisely what the student must be able to do to demonstrate his achievement. Such vague and indefinite terms as "learns," "sees," "realizes," and "is familiar with" should be avoided, since they do not clearly indicate the terminal behavior to be observed.

5 Formulates a test plan that is in harmony with the principles Note tliat the terms used to describe the specific learning outcomes indicate behaviors that can be demonstrated to an observer. That is, the outcomes are obseruable behaviors that can be called forth by test items. 4ction verbs such as these indicate precisely what the student must be able to do to demonstrate his achievement. Such vague and indefinite terms as "learns," "sees," "realizes," and "is familiar with" should be avoided, since they do not clearly indicate the terminal behavior to be observed.

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