By Stephen J. McPhee, Maxine A. Papadakis
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Extra resources for Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2009, 48th Edition (Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment)
In patients with cough and dyspnea, a normal match test (ability to blow out a match from 25 cm away) and maximum laryngeal height > 4 cm (measured from the sternal notch to the cricoid cartilage at end expiration) substantially decrease the likelihood of COPD. Similarly, normal jugular venous pressure and negative hepatojugular reflux decrease the likelihood of biventricular CHF. C. Diagnostic Studies 1. Acute cough—Chest radiography should be considered for any adult with acute cough who shows abnormal vital signs or in whom the chest examination is suggestive of pneumonia.
The absolute benefit was greater for older women, and the risk of false-positive results was high for all women. Digital mammography is more sensitive in women with dense breasts and younger women; however, studies exploring outcomes are lacking. The use of MRI is not currently recommended for general screening, though the American Cancer Society does recommend screening MRI for women at high risk (≥ 20–25%), including those with a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer. Although delays to following up an abnormal mammogram exist, the use of patient navigation programs to reduce such delays appears beneficial, especially among poor and minority populations.
How often during the past year have you needed a first drink in the morning to get yourself going after a heavy drinking session? (0) Never (1) Less than monthly (2) Monthly (3) Weekly (4) Daily or almost daily 7. How often during the past year have you had a feeling of guilt or remorse after drinking? (0) Never (1) Less than monthly (2) Monthly (3) Weekly (4) Daily or almost daily 8. How often during the past year have you been unable to remember what happened the night before because you had been drinking?