By Joseph L Izzo, Domenic Sica, Henry R Black
Now in its completely up-to-date Fourth variation, the high blood pressure Primer is a complete, readable resource of cutting-edge medical and medical details on high blood pressure. The booklet comprises 171 brief chapters via distinct specialists that disguise each point of high blood pressure and its pathogenesis, epidemiology, impression, and administration. Highlights of this variation contain up-to-date JNC 7 findings concerning specified inhabitants remedy and medical administration. Chapters are grouped into 3 well-organized sections--basic technological know-how, inhabitants technology, and scientific management--and every one bankruptcy is cross-referenced to different appropriate chapters. every one bankruptcy is definitely digestible and starts off with a bulleted record of key issues.
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Additional info for Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure: Basic Science, Population Science, and Clinical Management, 4th Edition
Molecular cloning has revealed >20 genes that encode different subtypes of CNG in invertebrates and vertebrates. They are nonselective voltage-dependent cation channels, formed by four Î± subunits, each containing a six-transmembrane-domain module similar to that of voltage-gated K+ channels. Î² subunits do not form functional channels, but modulate the channel properties of Î± subunits. CNG channels open in response to direct binding of intracellular cyclic nucleotides and contribute to cellular control of the membrane potential and intracellular Ca2+ levels.
The activity of these enzymes is regulated by both Ca2+ and PKC. Disruption of the GC-A gene elevates blood pressure independent of dietary salt and induces marked cardiac hypertrophy. Soluble (cytosolic) guanylyl cyclases. sGCs are present in most mammalian tissues and are abundant in lung and smooth muscle, as well as in nonmammalian species, including Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans. On the basis of cDNA cloning, four sGC subunits have been identified: Î±1, Î±2, Î²1, and Î²2. The Î±1 and Î±2 subunits are interchangeable in terms of sGC activity when coexpressed with Î²1, but the Î±1Î²1 heterodimer is most common in mammalian tissues.
The marked amino acid sequence homologies between PKA and PKG and predicted similarities in their structures suggest that the two enzymes have evolved from an ancestral phosphotransferase. In contrast to PKAs, PKGs have a more limited distribution in mammalian tissues. In high concentrations they are present in cerebellar Purkinje cells, platelets, and intestinal epithelial cells. In other tissues, PKG is 10- to 100-fold lower than that of PKA. In mammals, there are two forms of this enzyme. Type I kinase is a soluble protein, consisting of two spliced forms that mediates effects of natriuretic peptides and NO in cardiovascular cells.