[Journal] Environmental Science and Technology. Volume 45.

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Technol. 3 (see Supporting Information). We assigned each capture process a TRL level at the time of its review. Figure 3 shows a histogram of the results from EPRI’s study. The majority of PCC technologies are absorption-based processes (60%), followed by membrane (14%), mineralization (14%), and adsorption (12%). This result is perhaps reflective of the fact that absorption technologies are widely used already in the broader chemical process and oil/gas production industries, and hence operational confidence of the basic process is relatively high.

Technol. 2011, 45, 8633–8641 Environmental Science & Technology move along the causeÀeffect chain (ΔCf RF f ΔT). Integrated Global Temperature Change (iΔT) could be considered to be a physical metric closer to damages, but we find that it is numerically similar to the GWP in normalized form (see Supporting Information), and hence, we only present results for the GWP. 31 3. TREATMENT OF TIME There are two main treatments of time in relation to metrics. Absolute metrics compare the climate impact of different emissions over time, whereas normalized metrics compare the climate impact relative to a reference gas.

Global Temperature Change (ΔT). , 47]. As for RF, ΔT is an endpoint concept removing the integral in eq 1. As a way of analogy, RT mimics a physical discount function: RT makes the metric “forget” the forcing at early times as energy moves into the deep ocean, while in effect RT = 1 for the iRF and hence iRF “remembers” the forcing at early times. 2. Normalized Metrics. It is common to use a normalized metric that converts a component i into the equivalent climate impact of a reference gas, usually CO2, Mi ðTHÞ ¼ AMi ðTHÞ AMCO2 ðTHÞ ð7Þ where AM represents iRF or ΔT and leads to the Global Warming Potential (GWP) or Global Temperature change Potential (GTP).

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